Cognitive flexibility in OCD: challenging the paradigm. Conclusions. J. Objective: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The ability to successfully update working memory is thought to be a key component of cognitive flexibility (Dajani and Uddin, 2015). Additional factors, such as the number of consistent trials prior to a shift and whether a shift is explicitly signaled or must be inferred from a change in reward contingencies, may influence performance, and thus mask or accentuate deficits. Recent endophenotype studies of OCD showed neural inefficiency in the cognitive control network and interference by the limbic network of the cognitive control network. Traditional cognitive probes may not be sufficient to delineate specific domains of deficit in this and other neuropsychiatric disorders; a new generation of behavioral tasks that test more specific underlying constructs, supplemented by neuroimaging to provide insight into the underlying processes, may be needed. Meta-analytic reviews support a pattern of cognitive inflexibility, with effect sizes generally in the medium range. In addition to facilitating goal-directed behaviors, cognitive control and flexibility have been implicated in emotion regulation, and disturbances of these abilities are present in mood and anxiety disorders. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive patterns of repetitive, inflexible cognition and behavior that suggest a lack of cognitive flexibility. If you have OCD, it is common to overestimate your responsibility for an … This review presents examples of research using functional neuroimaging, reporting abnormal brain processes in OCD that may underlie specific cognitive/executive (inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory), and emotional impairments (fear/defensive, disgust, guilt, shame). Interestingly, this brain region is associated with the core characteristics of OCD, namely repetition, control and obsessive thoughts. However, studies have largely focused on actual abilities and while individuals' emotional responses may be just as important, little is known about how those with OCD experience a situation that requires cognitive flexibility. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. OCD and MDD may be characterized by cognitive rigidity at the phenotype level, and frontal-striatal brain circuits constitute the neural substrate of intact cognitive flexibility. In the past half century, these refractory cases have been … Classical neuropsychological probes test multiple constructs simultaneously. These deficits may contribute to symptomatology. Such measures will play a key role in understanding genotype/phenotype associations for OCD and related spectrum conditions. Updating is the constant monitoring and rapid addition/deletion of working memory contents (Miyake et al., 2000, Miyake and Friedman, 2012). Jessica received her MA in Biological Sciences and her DPhil in Neurobehavioural Genetics from the University of Oxford (Magdalen College). 2Klimesch, W. (2011), Evoked alpha and early access to the knowledge system: The P1 inhibition timing hypothesis. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This involves a preoccupation with the internal feeling or bodily function, worry and self-doubt about escaping the feeling and compulsions to prevent, avoid or distract one’s self from the problem. 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